fbpx 40 131 GK3 Konstruksjoner 1 | The Oslo School of Architecture and Design


40 131 Structures 1

Full course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
GK3 Konstruksjoner 1
Course code: 
40 131
Level of study: 
Teaching semester: 
2019 Autumn
Assessment semester: 
2019 Autumn
Language of instruction: 
Person in charge
Bjørn Normann Sandaker
Required prerequisite knowledge

Bestått studiodelen av GK1 og GK2. Gjennomført (dvs. fått  godkjent eventuelle arbeidskrav, ha oppfylt eventuelle krav til oppmøte og levert inn besvarelse til vurdering) i øvrige emner i GK1 og GK2.

Course content

The aim of the course on structures and construction is to offer basic theoretical and practical knowledge of fundamental structural types, how structures behave when subjected to loads, and the relationship between form and the mechanical concepts of strength, stiffness and stability. Moreover, the course illustrates and discusses structural concepts in relation to various architectural works. Furthermore, the course focuses on the similarities and differences between the properties of the different materials and how they are used in actual construction practices. Besides, the most common construction systems for small and larger buildings will be presented and discussed in relation to works of architecture.

Learning outcome

Knowledge and skills The course will contribute to basic knowledge of the design of structures and structural systems, their detailing and construction in the most important structural materials (wood, steel and concrete), as well as train skills to implement such knowledge in actual project design. Moreover will the student develop an ability to reflect on the role of structures in architecture, and to present informed arguments for structural choices in her/his own projects. General competence After having completed the course the student is expected to have an overview of the most relevant structural systems employed in modern Norwegian building tradition.

Working and learning activities

The course consists of a number of weekly, compulsory lectures and compulsory exercises. A practical grip of the theoretical knowledge accumulated should be demonstrated in the design projects. The course is literature based and takes as a prerequisite that the student actively read in addition to following the lectures. The exercises are analytic tools that train the student in recognizing and understand structural aspects in specific works of architecture. Discussions on structures and construction technologies are central topics at project tutoring and reviews. The course is assessed by Pass/Not Passed on the background of presence at lectures (80%), as well as submitted and accepted exercises.


Obligatorisk pensum

Sandaker, B. N., Eggen, A. P., & Cruvellier, M. R. (2011);

The Structural Basis of Architecture. 3rd. ed. (2019) Routledge. Utvalgte kapitler.


Anbefalt litteratur

Konstruksjon og byggteknologi

Bovim, N. I., Sund, H., Holmestad, Å., & Stenstad, V. (1984). Limtreboka. Moelv: Moelven limtre A/S.

Bygging med betongelementer (1995). Betongindustriens landsforening

Dahl, T. (2003). Facaden: teori og praksis. [København]: Kunstakademiets Arkitektskoles Forlag.

Deplazes, A. (2005). Constructing architecture: materials processes structures : a handbook. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Eggen, A. P., & Sandaker, B. N. (1995). Stål, struktur og arkitektur. [Oslo]: Cappelen.

Friis Mathiasen, H., & Reitzel, E. (1999). Grundtræk af bærende konstruktioner i arkitekturen.

[København]: Kunstakademiets Arkitektskoles Forlag.

Gauld, B. J. B. (1995). Structures for architects. London: Godwin.

Herzog, T., Krippner, R., & Lang, W. (2004). Facade construction manual. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Hopp, J., & Alexander, S. (1995). Avstivning og kraftoverføring.

Kaltenbach, F. (2004). Translucent materials: glass, plastics, metals. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Kurrer, K.-E. (2008). The history of the theory of structures: from arch analysis to computational mechanics.

Berlin: Ernst & Son.

Macdonald, A. J. (2018). Structure and architecture. 3rd edition  Oxford: Butterworth Architecture.

Macdonald, A. J. (1997). Structural design for architecture. Oxford: ArchitecturalPress.

Murkatalogen (1985). [Oslo]: Mursentret. (Se Byggforsk Kunnskapssystemers nettside).

Natterer, J., Herzog, T., & Volz, M. (2001). Holzbau Atlas zwei. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Schittich, C. (1999). Glass construction manual. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Schlaich, J., & Bergermann, R. (2003). Leicht Weit: Jörg Schlaich, Rudolf Bergermann. München: Prestel.

Schulitz, H. C., Sobek, W., & Habermann, K. J. (2000). Steel construction manual. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Sivertsen, J., & Nordgård, L. (2003). Konstruksjonslære for arkitekter: lastberegning, likevektslære, fasthetslære, konstruksjoner av tre, stål og betong. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag, Kompendieforlaget.


Arkitektur og konstruksjon

Balmond, C., & Smith, J. (2002). Informal. Munich: Prestel.

Brookes, A. J., & Poole, D. (2004). Innovation in architecture. London: Spon Press.

Buchanan, P., & Piano, R. (1993). Renzo Piano Building Workshop: complete works. (Vol.3) London: Phaidon.

Buchanan, P., & Piano, R. (1993). Renzo Piano Building Workshop: complete works.(Vol.4) London: Phaidon.

Chareau, P., Futagawa, Y., Bauchet, B., & Vellay, M. (1988). La maison de verre:Pierre Chareau. Tokyo: A. D. A. Edita.

Colquhoun, A. (1992). Rafael Moneo: 1986-1992. Madrid: AviSa.

Davies, C., Frampton, K., & Hodgkinson, P. (1993). Hopkins: the work of Michael Hopkins and partners. London: Phaidon.

Engel, H. (1968). Structure systems. London: Iliffe Books.

Foster, N., Jenkins, D., & Abel, C. (2007). Norman Foster: works. (Vol. 3). Munich: Prestel.

Foster, N., Jenkins, D., & Abel, C. (2004). Norman Foster: works. (Vol. 4). Munich: Prestel.

Gerkan, M. v. (1997). Architektur für den Verkehr: von Gerkan, Marg und Partner. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Herzog, T. (1993). Thomas Herzog: Bauten 1978-1992 : ein Werkbericht. Stuttgart: G. Hatje.

Jean Prouvé: "constructeur" (1990). Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou.

Lyall, S. (2002). Masters of structure: engineering today's innovative buildings. London: Laurence King.

Lyall, S., & Herron, R. (1992). Imagination headquarters: Herron Associates. London: Phaidon.

Mainstone, R. (1998). Developments in structural form. Oxford: Architectural Press.

Moore, R., & Gilbert, D. (1992). Sackler Galleries, Royal Academy, London: architects Foster Associates. London: Wordsearch.

Norberg-Schulz, C., Postiglione, G., & Fehn, S. (1997). Sverre Fehn: samlede arbeider. Oslo: Orfeus.

Piano, R., & Brignolo, R. (1997). The Renzo Piano logbook. London: Thames and Hudson.

Powell, K. (1994). Richard Rogers. Zürich: Artemis.

Rice, P., & Dutton, H. (1995). Structural glass. London: E & FN Spon.

Ron Arad Associates: one off three (1993). London: Artemis.

Sandaker, B. N. (2008). On span and space: exploring structures in architecture. London: Routledge.

Werner, F. (2000). Covering + exposing: the architecture of Coop Himmelb(l)au. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Wigginton, M. (1996). Glass in architecture. London: Phaidon Press.

Wilkinson, C. (1996). Supersheds: the architecture of long-span, large volume buildings. Oxford: Butterworth Architecture.


Sist oppdatert


Mandatory courseworkCourseworks requiredPresence requiredComment
Presence required Required
Annet - spesifiser i kommentarfeltet Required
Obligatoriske arbeidskrav:
Mandatory coursework:Presence required
Courseworks required:
Presence required:Required
Mandatory coursework:Annet - spesifiser i kommentarfeltet
Courseworks required:
Presence required:Required
Form of assessmentGroupingGrading scaleComment
Other assessment method, define in comment field-Pass / fail
Form of assessment:Other assessment method, define in comment field
Grading scale:Pass / fail